Neurobiomechanics - Biomechanics and Neurology - Page I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 

5)  The Reasons for the Higher Incidences of Strokes in North Florida than in South Florida

According to epidemiological studies, the Northern part of Florida has higher incidences of strokes than in the southern part of Florida.

 

The incidences of strokes in the northern part of Florida are similar in magnitude to the incidences of stroke in the Stroke Belt States.

 

The reasons for the higher incidences of strokes in North Florida are; in the southern part of Florida, the great majority of people live in the coastal areas near the beaches, and a reason for this is that the inland of south Florida is mainly a swamp.

 

In the northern part of Florida, many more people live in the inland area and because of that, people in the north part of Florida have fewer opportunities to walk with bare feet and less opportunity to be engaged in water sports than the people in south Florida.

 

The physical geography’s effect on the way of life and daily locomotion explains why people in the south part of Florida are less prone to strokes than people who live in the north part of Florida and the people living in the rest of the US, excluding the New York metropolitan area.

 
 

6)  The Reasons for the Lower Incidences of Strokes in the New York Metropolitan Area

If we take a look at the map of this area, we can see that the entire New York metropolitan area is located on flat surfaces similar as the coastal plain sectors of Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina where the incidence of strokes is the highest in the US.

 

The people living in the New York metropolitan area have much less opportunities to walk with bare feet compared to people living in the coastal plain sectors in Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina, and far less than people living in the northern and southern part of Florida.

 

All physical geographical factors which contribute towards a lower incidence of strokes in states located on the hills and mountains, like the states in the West, Northeast or those in the Southeast like Florida (Southern part of Florida), in the New York metropolitan area are non-existent.

 

This all tells us that in the New York metropolitan area, the incidences of strokes should be higher than in the coastal plain sectors of Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina, but contrary, they are far lower than anywhere in the US.

 

One important factor which makes the New York metropolitan area different from any other part of the country is that people use the public transport system like nowhere else in the US. Every weekday, four and half million people use the subway alone.

The people who use private cars are most of the time walking with the usual speed (habitual walk). For example, they do not need to hurry to catch their own car, the car always waits for them, it is always at home or in the parking place and they always can afford to walk with their usual speed. (The usual speed is the speed of habitual walk).

 

People who use public transportation many times come in a situation in which they have to increase their speed of walk with the intention to catch the train or bus, and sometimes they decrease their walking speed below the habitual walking speed, with the intention to avoid waiting long on the station for the train or bus.

 

By changing the speed of walk, we change the way the neuromuscular control centre works. Each time when we change the speed of walk from usual speed (habitual walking speed) to slow or brisk walk, the activity of the neuromuscular control centre increases.

 

The next important factor when travelling on the train is the effect of a speeding train (effect of acceleration) and effect of a slowing train (effect of deceleration) on the people inside the train.

 

For example, if we stand or walk on the floor of the train which moves at a constant speed, we need the same effort to maintain the body in an upright position (upright posture) as we need when we are standing or walking on stabile ground.

 

The ability to maintain an upright body posture in a still standing position is one physical skill and it is an important part of motor skill.

 

Explained in simple terms; in a still standing position on the non-moving ground, the sense of balance coordinates the work of the muscles in order to support the body in an upright position.

 

The sense of balance is a vital component of the neuromuscular control centre.

 

1.      By still standing on stabile ground and on the floor of the train that moves at a constant speed, the neuromuscular control centre is active to overcome the pull of gravity in order to maintain an upright standing body posture.

 

2.      But if we are standing or walking in the train at a time when the train increases speed, and at the time when the train decreases speed, the musculoskeletal system increases activity and at the same time the neuromuscular control centre increases activity in order to maintain an upright standing posture (to avoid falling on the floor of the train).

 

3.      When the body is affected by acceleration or deceleration the neuromuscular control centre has to work against the pull of gravity and at the same time it has to work against the effect of acceleration, or the effect of deceleration, in order to maintain an upright body posture.

 

Another fact is that the time between speeding and slowing of the train is only a few minutes long, because in the city area, the distance between the stations is short. For example, by travelling in the intercity train, we spend much more time travelling with a constant speed. The time between speeding and slowing in an intercity train is much longer, because of the distance between stations is much bigger. In the case when we are travelling by subway (underground train - tube), we are affected every few minutes by the effects of speeding (effect of acceleration) and every few minutes we are affected by the effects of slowing (effect of deceleration).

 

We spend most of the time inside the train sitting in the passenger seat, but we still spend plenty of time standing and walking inside a slowing and speeding train. For example, when we are entering a train and before we have the chance to reach the available seat, the train already starts to leave the station, and in this short time we are exposed to the effects of a speeding train, and at the time when the train is slowing down before it stops at the station, many times we have to leave the seat and walk towards  the exit door because the time at which the train spends at the station is very short, just enough for some passengers to leave and for some passenger to enter the train. In these situations, the neuromuscular control centre together with the musculoskeletal system is forced to put more effort than usual to maintain an upright body posture; otherwise it will result in a fall on the floor of the train.

 

Another situation when we are unintentionally exercising our own motor skill is when we are walking in crowded areas, like; an underground station or in the busy street, shopping centres etc. In this case, we are frequently forced to change the speed and direction of the walk to make way through the crowd.

 

From a psychological point of view, the diversity of motion causes that we are more frequently mentally involved in locomotion. Mental involvement in physical activity is the factor that provides vital stimulations to the central nervous system. A diversity of motion (locomotion) is at the same time a diversity of physical activity. Diversity of physical activity is vital for the musculoskeletal system, as well as being vital for the neuromuscular control centre.

 

Habitual physical activity doesn’t engage the neuromuscular control centre to a sufficient extent.

 

By a prolonged period of time of doing habitual physical activities, the neuromuscular control centre deteriorate.

 

For the time of performing habitual locomotion, the musculoskeletal system is physically active but the neuromuscular control centre is under-active.

 

The next fact is that the use of public transport has the consequence of spending more time on being on the feet compared to people that mainly use own car for city travel.

 

One more important fact is that compared to people who use their own car for everyday travel, the person who use mainly city public transport, (subway, public buses etc.) are spending more time in outdoors temperature and that has positive consequences for the periphery and central nervous system.

 

This leads to the conclusion that in general, compared to the people who live in the rest of the USA, the people who live in the New York metropolitan area are more frequently forced to use a diversity of motion (diverse physical skills) in order to perform every day locomotion and that has the consequence of lower incidents of strokes in the New York metropolitan area than anywhere else in the US.

 

The man-made environment (city public transport) and man caused environment (crowded place) is responsible for the lower incidences of strokes in the New York Metropolitan area. 

  

Next Page - The Reasons for the Racial Disparity in Stroke Incidence                                                             l

Next Page - Susceptibility to Stroke when Migrated to Geographical Regions with Lower Incidence of Stroke

Next Page – Summary                                                                                                                                       l

 

 

Previous Page - Foreword

Previous Page   - Introduction

Previous Page   - Physical Geography and Stroke Incidences

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Biomechanics and Neural System (sensory system and neuromuscular system)

 

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Exercises that Negatively Affect Neural Development and Physical Health

Treadmill and Voluntary Movement Disorder - Page 4

Trampoline and Neuromuscular Activity – Page 5 


 

Exercises that Positively Affect Neural Development and Physical Health

A few exercises-physical activities which have positive effect on development and health are described in the article “Explaining the Mystery of the South East Stroke Belt”

1)  Foreword – Page 1a

2)  Introduction – Page 1b

3)  Physical Geography and Stroke Incidences – Page 1c

4)  The Reasons for the Lower Incidence of Stroke in Florida – Page 1d

5)  The Reasons for the Higher Incidence of Stroke in North Florida than in South Florida – Page 2a

6)  The Reasons for the Lower Incidence of Stroke in the New York Metropolitan Area – Page 2b

7)  The Reasons for the Racial Disparity in Stroke Incidence – Page 3a

8)  Susceptibility to Stroke when Migrated to Geographical Regions with Lower Incidence of Stroke – Page 3b

9)  Summary – Page 3c 


E-book:  Autism Linked to Stationary Bikes, Treadmills, Trampolines and Bouncy Castles (Contents of this Book) – Page 6

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