Neurobiomechanics - Biomechanics and Neurology - Page I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 

7)  The Reasons for the Racial Disparity in Stroke Incidences

One thing that is left to explain is why in the United States, African Americans are more prone to stroke than White Americans. One fact is that a big percentage of African Americans live in an area known as the “Stroke Belt”. That alone is one factor that to some extent explains the higher incidence of strokes among the African American population.

One fact that undermines the theory of racial predisposition for strokes is: African American men and women in the “Stroke Belt” area have a higher stroke death rate than their racial counterparts in other regions of the country. This means that African Americans living outside the “Stroke Belt” area have a lower stroke death rate than African Americans living inside the “Stroke Belt” area.

 

In this case, we can conclude that the differences in the physical geography of these regions and the differences in man-made environments are responsible for the difference in the rates of stroke incidents among African Americans living in different parts of the country.

 

The fact that the African Americans proportionally have a higher rate of stroke incidence than White Americans who live in the same geographical area leads to the conclusion of a racial predisposition for stroke, but if we take a close look at some factors it will be obvious that the reasons for the higher incidences of strokes among African Americans are not racial, but they are the same factors that are responsible for strokes incidences among White Americans.

 

In general, affluent Americans have houses near the beach or have swimming pools at home, and in the towns and cities all over the country in flat areas or in areas with hills and mountains, African American mostly have houses on the flat ground because the houses built on a flat ground are cheaper compared to the houses built on hilly areas.

 

Proportionally, the more affluent population take regularly holidays (vacations) in different places and travel more compared to the less affluent population. In general, the affluent population travel outside their place of residency more than the less affluent population. The less affluent population tend to spend all or most of their time in their place of residency.

 

Those and similar other social inequality factors are the fact that African Americans have in general less opportunity to exercises their own motor skill, and that negatively effects the neuromuscular control centre, and that leads to a higher susceptibility to strokes.

 

One more convincing fact is that after the age of 55 the stroke mortality rate for White American increases and is equal to that of African Americans. Increased incidences of strokes after the age of 55 by White Americans can be explained by decreased physical activities and decreased diversity of physical activities below the level necessary to maintain the neuromuscular control centre and the central nervous system to an optimal condition.

 

In proportion, at a younger age, concerning a diversity of physical activity there is differences between White Americans and African Americans but after the age of 55, proportionally there is little or no difference in the diversity of physical activity between White Americans and African Americans.

 

Side note: The theories based on racial and/or genetic susceptibility to strokes are absolutely wrong. In my strong opinion, all the theories about racial and/or genetic susceptibility to strokes are made by people who know little or nothing about genetics and heredity. Those theories are not the product of critical thinking and a creative mind, but they are born out of “IntelliGENE Design Theory” and shouldn’t be subject to any further discussions related to the cause, treatment and prevention of strokes.

 

If for any reason a man believes that he is more prone to a stroke he is already more prone not only to strokes, but as well as a number of negative health conditions because of such beliefs.

 

Believing to be more prone to certain negative health conditions does not have any ground in science, but is a product of negative thought or induced by pseudoscience.

 

Negative thoughts about our own susceptibility to strokes weaken the mental immune system and the entire immune system in general. Positive mental attitude strengthens the mental immune system. The pseudo-theories based on a grain of science doesn’t have any positive effect on stroke incidence and mortality among African Americans, but it is very likely that it contributes to raise a few percentages to an already high number of incidences of stroke among African Americans.

 

The fact that the incidence of stroke and the mortality of stroke are higher among the African Americans compared to white Americans is not because of genetics, but it is because till now no one really knows why this is happening.

 

1.      White Americans are affected with stroke, not because of genetics, but because till now no one really knows why some people are affected with stroke and others are not.

 

2.      African Americans are proportionally more affected with stroke but not because of genetics, but because in the first place till now no one really knows what makes some humans more than others vulnerable to stroke.

 

This is to conclude that African Americans and White Americans by doing the same physical activity in the same geographical area and the same man made environment are equally prone or not prone to stroke. 
 

8)  Susceptibility to Stroke when Migrated to Geographical Regions with Lower Incidence of Stroke

The last puzzle in the stroke belt mystery is the fact that individuals who had resided in the Stroke Belt in childhood experienced a heightened stroke risk at ages 50 and older, even if they had migrated out of the Stroke Belt.

 

The recent study (Glymour et al. 2007)) reported that “adults who had resided in the stroke belt during childhood and had moved outside the region had a higher stroke risk at ages 50 and older than adults who grew up in areas with a lower stroke incidence.”

 

Most of the physical skills, like swimming and riding the bike, have been acquired during childhood. Acquiring physical skill in childhood and in adulthood has long lasting effects on the neuromuscular control centre.

 

Physical geography and man-made environments in the “stroke belt area” to a lesser extent offers the opportunity to acquire and master motor skill compared to the physical geography and man-made environments in the rest of the USA.

 

Compared to the children living outside the “stroke belt area”, the children living inside the stroke belt area have less opportunity to learn and master motor skill.

 

For example: Once learned to ride a bike will stay with them for a long time even if a man does not ride a bike for many years, he is still able to ride a bike.

 

Learning to swim will stay for the rest of their life even if a man does not swim for many years; the swimming skill is wired into the brain or better to say; the swimming skill like any other physical skill is a part of the brain.

 

Learning useful physical skills have long lasting effects on the brain.

 

Learning and mastering the motor skill is what builds, maintains and enhances the neuromuscular control centre. (Healthy neuromuscular control centre is an essential condition for a strong mental immune system.)

 

Being able to walk doesn’t make a man be able to swim or to ride a bicycle. But being able to walk makes us able to walk in a different geographical environment. This means that some skills we have to learn like riding the bike and swimming and some skills we don’t need to learn but we can further  master, like walking skills on an uneven ground (hilly and mountain regions), on the ground covered with pebbles, barefoot walking etc.

 

Certain environments enable us to walk without the necessity to further master our walking skill and some environment forces us to improve our existing walking skill.

 

Learning/acquiring physical skills like walking, swimming and riding a bicycle has long lasting effects on the neuromuscular control centre and in general on the entire neuromuscular control system, as well as having long lasting positive consequences for the mental immune system.

 

On the one side, learning a new physical skill and on the other side, mastering an already acquired physical skill has a lasting effect on the neuromuscular control centre and the mental immune system.

 

At any age, human can learn a new physical skill (like swimming, diving, riding the bike etc.) and he can also master existing physical skill (walking skill, jumping and landing skill etc.).

 

It appears that small things like taking a little care about the neuromuscular control centre by learning new physical skills, by mastering already acquired physical skills or just by maintaining existing physical skills will make everyone, whether he grew up in the stroke belt area or anywhere in USA or in the world, stronger against stroke (less vulnerable to stroke).
 

9)  Summary

It is obvious that living in a geographical area where the incidence of strokes are lower than anywhere in the country will not make anyone less susceptible to stroke, but the physical activities that positively affects the neuromuscular control centre is a factor that makes human less prone to stroke.

 

On the other side, it is obvious that living in an area where the incidences of stroke are highest in the country does not make anyone more prone to stroke, but daily physical activity that does not involve to a sufficient extent the neuromuscular control centre is a factor that makes anyone, whether a White American or African American, more prone to stroke.

 

Living in any particular geographical area has advantages and disadvantages. For example, in the south east of the USA there is a higher incidence of stroke compared to the rest of the USA. On the other side in the South East of the USA, there is a lower incidence of autism compared to the North East and the North West of the USA.

 

It is well known that by a prolonged time of physical inactivity, the muscles and bones lose strength and mobility. This is to conclude that by a prolonged time of insufficient stimulation, the central and periphery nervous systems deteriorate. Deterioration of the central and peripheral nervous system causes a deterioration of the mental immune system.

 

Even occasionally walking barefoot on the grass or sandy beaches will positively affect the nervous system and at the same time it will positively affect every day walking pattern. This means that improving our barefoot walking skill will have positive consequences for our everyday walking patterns. (It will positively affect habitually walking pattern) and will have lasting positive consequences for the neuromuscular system and nervous system.

 

Neuromuscular system consists of the neuromuscular control centre and the neuromuscular peripheral system.

 

By everyday walking, even occasionally for a few minutes, using a conscious effort for a few minutes to maintain a good body posture and balanced gait will reduce the risk of stroke and it is because by using a conscious effort to control the posture and gait, the neuromuscular control centre and the neuromuscular peripheral system are far more active than what is the case with the habitual locomotion and habitual body posture.

 

By everyday sitting or standing, occasionally for a few minutes or less, using a conscious effort to maintain a good posture in a still standing position or for the time of sitting the neuromuscular control centre is far more active than what is the case by habitually maintaining a sitting or standing body posture.

 

Incorporating a diverse, simple, non-strenuous and at the same time enjoyable physical activities and/or postural and motor skill exercises in everyday life will be the most effective measure towards stroke and many common diseases and health conditions.

 

It needs to take into consideration that slow walking or brisk walking for a prolonged period of time is not fully beneficial for the neuromuscular control centre because after some period of walking at the same speed, this type of walk will start to be habitual. The best way to exercise the neuromuscular control centre is from time to time to change the speed of walk.

 

A few minutes a day of physical activity that causes increased activity of the neuromuscular control centre will greatly reduce the possibility of stroke for everyone, independent of the physical geography and the manmade environment.

 

Learning new physical skills or improving, or at least maintaining, existing physical skills, the neuromuscular control centre is to an optimal extent active.

 

Physical activities that have a protective role against strokes are at the same time highly effective as a means to achieve effective recovery after stroke and it also has a protective role against the reoccurrence of stroke.

 

Please note: Not every physical activity is beneficial for the neuromuscular control centre.

 

For example, doing exercises on a stationary bike (moving the pedals without moving from one place to another).

 

Another example of unhelpful physical activities is exercises on a treadmill.

 

Inflatable bouncy house-castle, inflatable obstacle courses and trampolines are nowadays popular exercising devices that need to be avoided.

 

Physical activities that positively affect posture and motor skill, including postural and motor skill exercises are the only appropriate means to prevent and/or treat stroke and other neurological conditions.

Next PageExercises on a Treadmill and Neural Development (Neuromuscular activity during walking and running on a treadmill)


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Biomechanics and Neural System (sensory system and neuromuscular system)

 

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Exercises that Negatively Affect Neural Development and Physical Health

Treadmill and Voluntary Movement Disorder - Page 4

Trampoline and Neuromuscular Activity – Page 5


Exercises that Positively Affect Neural Development and Physical Health 

A few exercises-physical activities which have positive effect on development and health are described in the article “Explaining the Mystery of the South East Stroke Belt”

1)  Foreword – Page 1a

2)  Introduction – Page 1b

3)  Physical Geography and Stroke Incidences – Page 1c

4)  The Reasons for the Lower Incidence of Stroke in Florida – Page 1d

5)  The Reasons for the Higher Incidence of Stroke in North Florida than in South Florida – Page 2a

6)  The Reasons for the Lower Incidence of Stroke in the New York Metropolitan Area – Page 2b

7)  The Reasons for the Racial Disparity in Stroke Incidence – Page 3a

8)  Susceptibility to Stroke when Migrated to Geographical Regions with Lower Incidence of Stroke – Page 3b

9)  Summary – Page 3c


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